Sunday, October 31, 2010

Tafseer Al-Fatiha

TAFSEER CLASS (Al-Fatiha) BY USTAZA EIMAN ON 31/10/10

Ustaza Eiman (May Allah bless her, increase her and make us benefit from her) begins teaching by asking us to think why we are studying tafseer.
1) From the hadith '“The best of you are the ones who learn the Qur’an and teach it to others” [Al-Bukhari]
2) We learn the name of Allah subhanahu wa ta'ala from the Qur'an, to be closer to Him. ~ sometime one Name is use, sometimes two Names (Ghafoorur Raheem), sometimes three Names are used (Allahi Rahmanir Raheem), in other surah Al-Hasyr 59:24
هُوَ اللَّهُ الْخَالِقُ الْبَارِئُ الْمُصَوِّرُ لَهُ الْأَسْمَاء الْحُسْنَى يُسَبِّحُ لَهُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ
six names in one ayaat, in 59:23 nine Names of Allah in an Ayaat:

هُوَ اللَّهُ الَّذِي لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا هُوَ الْمَلِكُ الْقُدُّوسُ السَّلَامُ الْمُؤْمِنُ الْمُهَيْمِنُ الْعَزِيزُ الْجَبَّارُ الْمُتَكَبِّرُ سُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ عَمَّا يُشْرِكُونَ
The Prophet (sallAllahu alayhi wa sallam) said: “ Whoever when he wakes in the morning says ‘I seek refuge with Allah against Satan’ and recites three verses from the last of surah al Hashr then 70,000 angels will pray for him until the evening and should he die that day he would have died a martyr.” [ Ibn Ahmad, Darimi, Tirmidhi 5/182] (end of surah Al-Hasyr verse no 22, 23 and 24)
3) Allah is teaching us
4) loving Him; al-Qur`an 5:54, “yuhibbuhum wayuhibboonahu”. Allahuma inni uhibbuka (O Allah, indeed I love you). The more we understand the Qur'an, the more we love Him.
5) to know why Allah has created me : وَمَا خَلَقْتُ الْجِنَّ وَالْإِنسَ إِلَّا لِيَعْبُدُونِ
51:56 I have only created Jinns and men, that they may serve Me.
6) to know the sunnah: قُلْ إِن كُنتُمْ تُحِبُّونَ اللّهَ فَاتَّبِعُونِي يُحْبِبْكُمُ اللّهُ وَيَغْفِرْ لَكُمْ ذُنُوبَكُمْ وَاللّهُ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ
3:31 Say: "if ye do love Allah, follow me: Allah will love you and forgive you your sins: For Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful."
7) to know halal and haram for eg
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ أَوْفُواْ بِالْعُقُودِ أُحِلَّتْ لَكُم بَهِيمَةُ الأَنْعَامِ إِلاَّ مَا يُتْلَى عَلَيْكُمْ غَيْرَ مُحِلِّي الصَّيْدِ وَأَنتُمْ حُرُمٌ إِنَّ اللّهَ يَحْكُمُ مَا يُرِيدُ O ye who believe! fulfill (all) obligations. Lawful unto you (for food) are all four-footed animals, with the exceptions named: But animals of the chase are forbidden while ye are in the sacred precincts or in pilgrim garb: for Allah doth command according to His will and plan. 5:1
8) To study the type of people who will be in the Garden and the Fire eg: وَعِبَادُ الرَّحْمَنِ الَّذِينَ يَمْشُونَ عَلَى الْأَرْضِ هَوْنًا وَإِذَا خَاطَبَهُمُ الْجَاهِلُونَ قَالُوا سَلَامًا 25:63 And the servants of ((Allah)) Most Gracious are those who walk on the earth in humility, and when the ignorant address them, they say, "Peace!";

9) At-ta'aroof (to get to know) of anbiya' (the prophets) and their stories, for example sayidina Moosa 'Alayhi salaam was mentioned more than 73 times in the Qur'an. The more we read, it will increase yaqeen (certainty) and eeman in our heart.
10) help us to be patient
- in 'ibadah: when we read on how Rasool sallallahu 'alayhi wa alihi wassalam worship and how sayidina Dawood 'alayhi salaam fast.
- in ma'siya: the story of Sayidina Yusuf 'alayhi salaam when he said Ma'azaAllah 12:23, we learned that when we are tempted with ma'siyat (wrong-doings) we can say ma'azaAllah.
11) teaches us 'amal ma'roof wa nahi 'anil munkar (enjoin good and forbid evil) for eg
وَأَقِيمُواْ الصَّلاَةَ وَآتُواْ الزَّكَاةَ وَمَا تُقَدِّمُواْ لأَنفُسِكُم مِّنْ خَيْرٍ تَجِدُوهُ عِندَ اللّهِ إِنَّ اللّهَ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ بَصِيرٌ 2:110 (And be steadfast in prayer and regular in charity: And whatever good ye send forth for your souls before you, ye shall find it with Allah. for Allah sees Well all that ye do.)
and example of forbidding evil: وَلاَ تَقْرَبُواْ الزِّنَى إِنَّهُ كَانَ فَاحِشَةً وَسَاء سَبِيلاً 17:32 Nor come nigh to adultery: for it is a shameful (deed) and an evil, opening the road (to other evils).

12) we get to know the ghaybiyaat (the unseen) for example the Day of Judgement, Jannah and Naar
13)
14) teaches us adab, (7:199 Hold to forgiveness; command what is right; But turn away from the ignorant.)
15) It answers all our questions, the more we read, the more we know.
16) It explains everything: past, present and future.(tibyanan li kulli shayy) 16:89 ...and We have sent down to thee the Book explaining all things, a Guide, a Mercy, and Glad Tidings to Muslims

Sayidina Abdullah ibnu Mas'ood radhyiaAllahu 'anhu knew the Qur'an more than he knows his own children. Rasul sallallahu 'alayhi wa alihi wassalam used to ask him to read the Qur'an and upon hearing it, his tears will come streaming down on his cheek (sallallahu 'alayhi wa alihi wassalam) and wetting his beards.
According to sayidina Ibnu Abbas RadhiyaAllahu 'anh: it contains all knowledge including future knowledge (fi amrihi wa khalqihi).

How did the scholars give tafseer?
- with another ayat for example:
فَتَلَقَّى آدَمُ مِن رَّبِّهِ كَلِمَاتٍ فَتَابَ عَلَيْهِ إِنَّهُ هُوَ التَّوَّابُ الرَّحِيمُ Al-Baqara 2:37 (Then learnt Adam from his Lord words of inspiration, and his Lord Turned towards him; for He is Oft-Returning, Most Merciful.) What is the word (kalimaat) used? It was explained in verse 7:23
قَالاَ رَبَّنَا ظَلَمْنَا أَنفُسَنَا وَإِن لَّمْ تَغْفِرْ لَنَا وَتَرْحَمْنَا لَنَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الْخَاسِرِين
The two replied: "O our Sustainer! We have sinned against ourselves -and unless Thou grant us forgiveness and bestow Thy mercy upon us, we shall most certainly be lost!
Tafseer of qur'an with qur'an is the highest level of tafseer
- The meaning can be zahir and batin. The unseen meanings is for the people of knowledge for exmple on the revealation of Surah An-nasr. sayidina Ibnu Abbas radhiyaAllahu 'anh explained that Rasul sallallahu 'alayhi wa alihi wassalam is going to pass away soon. This is tafsir batin.
What is the goal? Ibnu ajiba produced six great big books - tarbiyatul yaqeen (to teach yaqin) , adda'na lil maqamil ihsan

The surahs can be either makki (revealed in Makkah) or Madani (in Madinah). In the beginning, the surahs were revealed to teach tauhid.


Other names for Al-Fatiha:
-Al-wafiya : summarised in al-fatiha (wafy means enough)
- Al-Kafiyah : enough for any solat
- Al-syafiya

Saturday, October 30, 2010

Mercy

Reminder by Ustaza Mona

From the Companion Abdallah bin Amr bin al-As, who heard the Prophet (salla Allahu alayhi wa sallam) say, "The merciful, the Most Merciful God has mercy upon them. Be merciful on the earth and He that is in the Heavens will be merciful with you (al-rahimun yarhamuhum al-Rahman, arhamu mam fi'l-ard yarhamkum man fi'l-sama)." (Sunan al-Tirmidhi)

Attribute of Allah:
1) Beautific: Generous, Bountiful, Gentle (This is the sifat that Allah loves His servant to have)
2) Majestic: Almighty, Glorious, Greatest (For Allah alone and we have to show the opposite character for example if we show the opposite character and be humble, Allah will enriches us)
3) Kamaliyah: completing sifaat

Hearing the hadith is like syifa' (healing).

Saturday, October 02, 2010

Branch 26: Jihad

77 branches of faith (02.10.10)Imam Al-Bayhaqi
Branch 26: Jihad


- Habib Ahmad Masyhur bin Taha Al-Haddad (RahmatuLlahi 'alayh) said that the highest amal ma'ruf is jihad. The process of jihad is calling people to Deen.
Rasul Sallallahu 'alayhi wa alihi wassalam was reported as saying: "Allah Who is Blessed and Exalted, has prescribed benevolence (ihsan) towards everything {and has ordained that everything be done in a good way}; so, when you must kill a living being, do it in the best of manner and, when you slaughter an animal, you should {use the best method and} sharpen your knife so as to cause the animal as little pain as possible." (Narrated by Shaddad bin Aus. Muslim)

- In the battle of Badar, the angels fought alongside the Muslim army. Sayidina Jibra'eel alayhi salam was present at that time as well. He is the amanatul 'wahy (the one who's entrusted with revealation) and he is so strong that in the time of Prophet Lut Alayhi Sallam, he just used one wing and turn the whole community upside down. It is also reported that wind that echoes from his shout can destroy a whole population, However, during the Battle of Badar, he was taught in detail on how to destroy the enemy (as revealed in the verse below:)
إِذْ يُوحِي رَبُّكَ إِلَى الْمَلآئِكَةِ أَنِّي مَعَكُمْ فَثَبِّتُواْ الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ سَأُلْقِي فِي قُلُوبِ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ الرَّعْبَ فَاضْرِبُواْ فَوْقَ الأَعْنَاقِ وَاضْرِبُواْ مِنْهُمْ كُلَّ بَنَانٍ
8:12 (Asad) Lo! Thy Sustainer inspired the angels [to convey this His message to the believers]: "I am with you !" [And He commanded the angels:] "And, give firmness unto those who have attained to faith [with these words from Me]: `I shall cast terror into the hearts of those who are bent on denying the truth; strike, then, their necks, [O believers,] and strike off every one of their finger-tips!" The angels were thought on where exactly to strike.

- The lesson we can learn from this is; we should have excellence in everything we do and ihsan even in jihad. Jihad does not mean indiscriminate killing.

- Bukhari relates on the authority of Ibnu Abi Aufa RadhiyaAllahu 'anhu that the Prophet Sallahu 'alayhi wa alihi wasallam said 'Do not look forward to meeting the enemy, and ask God for wellbeing. When you meet them, however, be steadfast, and know that the Garden is under the shade of swords.'
- From Sahih Al-Bukhari (4:52;2661), Narrated Salim Abu An-Nadr: (the freed slave of 'Umar bin 'Ubaidullah) I was Umar's clerk. Once Abdullah bin Abi Aufa wrote a letter to 'Umar when he proceeded to Al-Haruriya. I read in it that Allah's Apostle in one of his military expeditions against the enemy, waited till the sun declined and then he got up amongst the people saying, "O people! Do not wish to meet the enemy, and ask Allah for safety, but when you face the enemy, be patient, and remember that Paradise is under the shades of swords." Then he said, "O Allah, the Revealer of the Holy Book, and the Mover of the clouds and the Defeater of the clans, defeat them, and grant us victory over them."

Ibnu Abi Aufa RadhiyaAllahu 'anh came back from Persia and went to meet Rasul Sallallahu 'alayhi wa alihi wassalam. He reported that they had rejected his call and Rasool sallallahu 'alayhi wa alihi wassalam replied "La Tamanna" which means do not anticipate, (look forward, hope, wish) and expect to meet the enemy. Hassan Al-Basri (Rahmatullahi 'alayh) said " it meant do not go out and fight the enemy.
- We should always think that if we die tonight, are we prepared to meet our Lord?
- We should have ihsan even in killing-the most unnatural thing for a human being, is to kill another human.
- Almost every battle that Rasul Sallallahu 'alayhi wa alihi wassalam fought was after fajar (battle of Khandaq was after Dhohr) ~ jihad should has the right timing. In the night of Badar, Rasul Sallallahu 'alayhi wa alihi wassalam didn't even sleep . Allah send down sakeena (rain): Mika'eel.
- 'and ask Allah for 'afiya'. Not ask for victory when meeting the enemy. If you die, you will be ask on what state you die but if you meet them, know that jannah lies under the sword.
-Allahuma munzilal al_kitaab wa mujriya al-sahab wahaazimal al_ahzaab: when Rasul Sallallahu 'alayhi wa alihi wassalam asked for rain, cloud runs to bring him rain.

Habib Ahmad (Rahmatullahu 'alayh) said that we should have aspiration to spread Islam in the land but we should not aspire to meet the enemy.

- “Whoever asks Allah sincerely for martyrdom [Allahumma inni as'aluk ash-shahadah], Allah will cause him to reach the status of the martyrs even if he dies in his bed.” ['Sahih al-Bukhari'; # 1909]‘ [Muslim, 55:13]

- When people are fighting because of pride, nationalism, progress, arabism, national pride, it is not jihad especially if they fight with their own people.
What meant by jihad is fighting the nafs, fighting against the lower desire. If your nafs is Amaratu bi su', you always have to fight it.
“A Mujahid (who is engaged in Jihad) is one who struggles with his own self in submission to the will of Allah.
"The Messenger Sallallahu 'alayhi wa alihi wasallam said (during his farewell Hajj): "Should I inform you of who the Mu'min (true believer) is? It is he who people are secure from him with regards to their wealth and their own selves. The (true) Muslim is he who people are safe from (being harmed by) his tongue and hand. The (true) Mujahid is he who performs Jihad an-Nafs in the obedience of Allah. And the (true) Muhajir (the migrant in the Cause of Allah) is he who abandons error and sin" [Ahmed, al-Haakim and at-Tabaraani]

According to Al-Qurtubi, the right of jihad is to be excellent. We have to excel in everything: driving, wearing clothes etc. And fight yourself to be obedient to Allah, and push your desire and fight against the shaitan by pushing away their whispering and the kuffar in his disbelieve. Don't be scared of what they will say to you. Be firm in your deen and be careful on how you deal with Allah in the state of goodness and poverty. wa rabitu, ribat ie to be a full time service of jihad. (Murabitun is a group of people at the edge of muslim world ready to do jihad).
1030. Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, "Shall I not tell you something by which Allah erases the sins and elevates ranks (in Jannah)?'' The Companions said; "Certainly, O Messenger of Allah.'' He (PBUH) said, "Performing the Wudu' thoroughly in spite of difficult circumstances, walking with more paces to the mosque, and waiting for the next As-Salat (the prayer) after observing Salat; and that is Ar-Ribat, and that is Ar-Ribat.'' [Muslim].

We should observe ihsan even during slaughtering of animals- this include taking the animal away from its family (herd), give water to the animal and should not show ( expose) the knife if the animal is looking.

Relationship between individuals and the state: the booty will be divided into 5. Four for those who went to battle and one for the state.

Above are the intention for studying from Imam Abdullah Al-Haddad (RahimuLlah) translated as: All praise to Allah, Lord of the Worlds. And salutations and greetings upon our master Muhammad and upon his family and companions. I intend to study and teach, take and give a reminder, take and give benefit, take and give advantage, to encourage the holding fast to the book of Allah and the way of his messenger, and calling to guidance and directing towards good hoping for the countenance of Allah and His pleasure, proximity and reward, transcendent is He. (Our thanks to www.deenport.com)

notes:


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- All the notes were just our own paraphrasing while listening to the dars. Any mistakes are ours and please forgive us for that.
-Last but not least, please make du'a for us, for our dunya wal akhirat.