Sunday, October 31, 2010

Tafseer Al-Fatiha

TAFSEER CLASS (Al-Fatiha) BY USTAZA EIMAN ON 31/10/10

Ustaza Eiman (May Allah bless her, increase her and make us benefit from her) begins teaching by asking us to think why we are studying tafseer.
1) From the hadith '“The best of you are the ones who learn the Qur’an and teach it to others” [Al-Bukhari]
2) We learn the name of Allah subhanahu wa ta'ala from the Qur'an, to be closer to Him. ~ sometime one Name is use, sometimes two Names (Ghafoorur Raheem), sometimes three Names are used (Allahi Rahmanir Raheem), in other surah Al-Hasyr 59:24
هُوَ اللَّهُ الْخَالِقُ الْبَارِئُ الْمُصَوِّرُ لَهُ الْأَسْمَاء الْحُسْنَى يُسَبِّحُ لَهُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ
six names in one ayaat, in 59:23 nine Names of Allah in an Ayaat:

هُوَ اللَّهُ الَّذِي لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا هُوَ الْمَلِكُ الْقُدُّوسُ السَّلَامُ الْمُؤْمِنُ الْمُهَيْمِنُ الْعَزِيزُ الْجَبَّارُ الْمُتَكَبِّرُ سُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ عَمَّا يُشْرِكُونَ
The Prophet (sallAllahu alayhi wa sallam) said: “ Whoever when he wakes in the morning says ‘I seek refuge with Allah against Satan’ and recites three verses from the last of surah al Hashr then 70,000 angels will pray for him until the evening and should he die that day he would have died a martyr.” [ Ibn Ahmad, Darimi, Tirmidhi 5/182] (end of surah Al-Hasyr verse no 22, 23 and 24)
3) Allah is teaching us
4) loving Him; al-Qur`an 5:54, “yuhibbuhum wayuhibboonahu”. Allahuma inni uhibbuka (O Allah, indeed I love you). The more we understand the Qur'an, the more we love Him.
5) to know why Allah has created me : وَمَا خَلَقْتُ الْجِنَّ وَالْإِنسَ إِلَّا لِيَعْبُدُونِ
51:56 I have only created Jinns and men, that they may serve Me.
6) to know the sunnah: قُلْ إِن كُنتُمْ تُحِبُّونَ اللّهَ فَاتَّبِعُونِي يُحْبِبْكُمُ اللّهُ وَيَغْفِرْ لَكُمْ ذُنُوبَكُمْ وَاللّهُ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ
3:31 Say: "if ye do love Allah, follow me: Allah will love you and forgive you your sins: For Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful."
7) to know halal and haram for eg
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ أَوْفُواْ بِالْعُقُودِ أُحِلَّتْ لَكُم بَهِيمَةُ الأَنْعَامِ إِلاَّ مَا يُتْلَى عَلَيْكُمْ غَيْرَ مُحِلِّي الصَّيْدِ وَأَنتُمْ حُرُمٌ إِنَّ اللّهَ يَحْكُمُ مَا يُرِيدُ O ye who believe! fulfill (all) obligations. Lawful unto you (for food) are all four-footed animals, with the exceptions named: But animals of the chase are forbidden while ye are in the sacred precincts or in pilgrim garb: for Allah doth command according to His will and plan. 5:1
8) To study the type of people who will be in the Garden and the Fire eg: وَعِبَادُ الرَّحْمَنِ الَّذِينَ يَمْشُونَ عَلَى الْأَرْضِ هَوْنًا وَإِذَا خَاطَبَهُمُ الْجَاهِلُونَ قَالُوا سَلَامًا 25:63 And the servants of ((Allah)) Most Gracious are those who walk on the earth in humility, and when the ignorant address them, they say, "Peace!";

9) At-ta'aroof (to get to know) of anbiya' (the prophets) and their stories, for example sayidina Moosa 'Alayhi salaam was mentioned more than 73 times in the Qur'an. The more we read, it will increase yaqeen (certainty) and eeman in our heart.
10) help us to be patient
- in 'ibadah: when we read on how Rasool sallallahu 'alayhi wa alihi wassalam worship and how sayidina Dawood 'alayhi salaam fast.
- in ma'siya: the story of Sayidina Yusuf 'alayhi salaam when he said Ma'azaAllah 12:23, we learned that when we are tempted with ma'siyat (wrong-doings) we can say ma'azaAllah.
11) teaches us 'amal ma'roof wa nahi 'anil munkar (enjoin good and forbid evil) for eg
وَأَقِيمُواْ الصَّلاَةَ وَآتُواْ الزَّكَاةَ وَمَا تُقَدِّمُواْ لأَنفُسِكُم مِّنْ خَيْرٍ تَجِدُوهُ عِندَ اللّهِ إِنَّ اللّهَ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ بَصِيرٌ 2:110 (And be steadfast in prayer and regular in charity: And whatever good ye send forth for your souls before you, ye shall find it with Allah. for Allah sees Well all that ye do.)
and example of forbidding evil: وَلاَ تَقْرَبُواْ الزِّنَى إِنَّهُ كَانَ فَاحِشَةً وَسَاء سَبِيلاً 17:32 Nor come nigh to adultery: for it is a shameful (deed) and an evil, opening the road (to other evils).

12) we get to know the ghaybiyaat (the unseen) for example the Day of Judgement, Jannah and Naar
13)
14) teaches us adab, (7:199 Hold to forgiveness; command what is right; But turn away from the ignorant.)
15) It answers all our questions, the more we read, the more we know.
16) It explains everything: past, present and future.(tibyanan li kulli shayy) 16:89 ...and We have sent down to thee the Book explaining all things, a Guide, a Mercy, and Glad Tidings to Muslims

Sayidina Abdullah ibnu Mas'ood radhyiaAllahu 'anhu knew the Qur'an more than he knows his own children. Rasul sallallahu 'alayhi wa alihi wassalam used to ask him to read the Qur'an and upon hearing it, his tears will come streaming down on his cheek (sallallahu 'alayhi wa alihi wassalam) and wetting his beards.
According to sayidina Ibnu Abbas RadhiyaAllahu 'anh: it contains all knowledge including future knowledge (fi amrihi wa khalqihi).

How did the scholars give tafseer?
- with another ayat for example:
فَتَلَقَّى آدَمُ مِن رَّبِّهِ كَلِمَاتٍ فَتَابَ عَلَيْهِ إِنَّهُ هُوَ التَّوَّابُ الرَّحِيمُ Al-Baqara 2:37 (Then learnt Adam from his Lord words of inspiration, and his Lord Turned towards him; for He is Oft-Returning, Most Merciful.) What is the word (kalimaat) used? It was explained in verse 7:23
قَالاَ رَبَّنَا ظَلَمْنَا أَنفُسَنَا وَإِن لَّمْ تَغْفِرْ لَنَا وَتَرْحَمْنَا لَنَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الْخَاسِرِين
The two replied: "O our Sustainer! We have sinned against ourselves -and unless Thou grant us forgiveness and bestow Thy mercy upon us, we shall most certainly be lost!
Tafseer of qur'an with qur'an is the highest level of tafseer
- The meaning can be zahir and batin. The unseen meanings is for the people of knowledge for exmple on the revealation of Surah An-nasr. sayidina Ibnu Abbas radhiyaAllahu 'anh explained that Rasul sallallahu 'alayhi wa alihi wassalam is going to pass away soon. This is tafsir batin.
What is the goal? Ibnu ajiba produced six great big books - tarbiyatul yaqeen (to teach yaqin) , adda'na lil maqamil ihsan

The surahs can be either makki (revealed in Makkah) or Madani (in Madinah). In the beginning, the surahs were revealed to teach tauhid.


Other names for Al-Fatiha:
-Al-wafiya : summarised in al-fatiha (wafy means enough)
- Al-Kafiyah : enough for any solat
- Al-syafiya

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Above are the intention for studying from Imam Abdullah Al-Haddad (RahimuLlah) translated as: All praise to Allah, Lord of the Worlds. And salutations and greetings upon our master Muhammad and upon his family and companions. I intend to study and teach, take and give a reminder, take and give benefit, take and give advantage, to encourage the holding fast to the book of Allah and the way of his messenger, and calling to guidance and directing towards good hoping for the countenance of Allah and His pleasure, proximity and reward, transcendent is He. (Our thanks to www.deenport.com)

notes:


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- All the notes were just our own paraphrasing while listening to the dars. Any mistakes are ours and please forgive us for that.
-Last but not least, please make du'a for us, for our dunya wal akhirat.