Sunday, February 25, 2007

THE CONCEPT OF BIDAH IN THE LIGHT OF ALQURAN AND SUNNAH

THE CONCEPT OF BIDAH IN THE LIGHT OF ALQURAN AND SUNNAH
DELIVERED BY HABIB KADHIM JAAFAR MUHAMMAD ALSAQQAF (HAFIDZULLAH) IN OLDHAM UK

The concept of Bidah has peroccupied many Muslims and it has forced people away from true etiquette that Rasulullah Sallallahu alaihi wa ahlihi wa salam embodied.
Differences has been there from the time of Rasulullah Sallallahu alaihi wa ahlihi and will always be there until end of time.
We should maintain high character and lofty mannerism in approaching differences.
Differences is practised by humankind generally.
It should not result in negative attitude and disrespect of other people.
Prophet Muhammad Sallallahu alaihi wa ahlihi wa salam said differences within my ummah /community is a blessing.
We cannot assume that there is only one correct way of understanding.

The example from prophet Muhammad Sallallahu alaihi wa ahlihi wa salam
He Sallallahu alaihi wa ahlihi wa salam instructed a group of sahabi not to pray asr until they reach Bani Khuraizah (is this right name).
A group of sahabi didn't pray as they understood the literal sense whereas a group prayed on the way as they understood prophet Sallallahu alaihi wa ahlihi wa salam wanted them to hasten and not prayed in Madina. When they returned and this was narrated to Prophet Sallallahu alaihi wa ahlihi wa salam, he did not negate either one of this groups. He ACCEPTED BOTH

Sahabi didn't differe amongst themselves but respected each other differences and didn't despice one group's action from another.Their hearts were together.

Another example
Arabic language- words/phrases has multiple meaning.
one word has more than 1 meaning
one phrase has multiple meanings
Imam Maliki/Shafii/Ahmad each looked and derived different understanding according to how the understood
each would use evidences from the sunnah Sallallahu alaihi wa ahlihi wa salam to support their understandings
but another scholar would not say the other is misguided/fasik ect but will work on what he understands.
Scholars accept differences in opinions.

Arabic language opens doors to different understanding.

e.g the word fauk
in the arabic word has 13 meanings
example fauk: above
fauk: greater than (in a parable)
Fauk: extra (verse of inheritance)

ishtiwar- establish
has 6 different meanings

_another example:_,_._,___
particle- connected to a word, on its own has not meaning
example in the verse about wudhu the particle "ba" causes differences in meaning about wiping the hair
each scholar produce evidences from sunnah Sallallahu alaihi wa ahlihi wa salam based on understanding and prophetic light.

in the latter day period/now Muslims are preoccupied with innovation in an incorrect manner which results in negativism in their hearts and perspective towards someone else
if we go back to Quran and sunnah of Prophet Muhammad Sallallahu alaihi wa ahlihi wa salam understand innovation,

TRUTH of the matter is clear
in a situation (1) know reality of matter
(2) courage to stand on reality

Bidah- innovation
means new inventions without previous example

Quran..... Badi us sama waliwal ard
Creator without any previous example

Prophet Sallallahu alaihi wa ahlihi wa salam when he warned about innovation, he warned in a general manner
Beware of every new innovation and is a misguidance

The word every in arabic carries the meaning majority
Prophet and companions understood it is not in an absolute manner.
However people assume that the prophetic meaning is general and start to consider it to be a sinner.

In the Quran and Arabic language, the word every means majority of things

For example in the sirah about punishment of people of Hud the ayat stated .... will destroy everything.....
but what was destryoed were houses of the disbelievers not mountains etc as well

Another example
in the story about Queen of Sheeba accepting religion of twheed from Sayyidina Sulayman Alaihi salam, the rough meaning of the ayat stated that she was given everything
but Sayyidina Sulayman Alaihi salam had the ability to control jinn and understood the language of animals but she didn't receive such gift,
therefore, the word every here means many many great gift, more than any other would normally receive

similarly the hadith of Sayyidina Muhammad S allallahu alaihi wa ahlihi every means majority

If a person repeatedly listens to this hadith over and over again, he could mistakenly understand that everything that Prophet Muhammad Sallallahu alaihi wa ahlihi wa salam did not do is wrong and will lead to Hell fire, but that is NOT so.

Sahabi Radhi Allahu anhum took the hadith from the mouth of Prophet Muhammad Sallallahu alaihi wa ahlihi wa salam and they also took the understanding of the hadith from him Sallallahu alaihi wa ahlihi wa salam.
But they were innovators themselves.

in Islam good practise which is followed, the innovator will receive reward for the practise and from all those who practise it after him without diminshing the rewards of those who do good.

Therefore
(1) A person with an act of goodness even if Prophet Muhammad S allallahu alaihi wa ahlihi didn't do is considered praise worthy
Prophet Sallallahu alaihi wa ahlihi wa salam encourage in general all act of goodness

(2) miss this ------

(3) Sahabi took the understanding and hadith from Prophet Sallallahu alaihi wa ahlihi wa salam continued doing good and they themselves did praiseworthy innovation.

What are blame worthy innovations?
It is when a normal practise either daily or cultural is being incorporated to make it a religious practise.

Example from Imam Bukhari hadith :
Abu Israil a companion wanted to please Allah by way of active worship by not standing under a shade and vowed never to sit.
When Rasulullah Sallallahu alaihi wa ahlihi wa salam knew about this, he told the companions to tell this particular sahabah to stand in the shade and to sit down.
This is normal everyday recurrence that was tried to incorporated into a religious practise.This is blameworthy innovation

Allah in AlQuran instructed act of goodness and Sahabi and the later generations did many acts of goodness that Prophet Sallallahu alaihi wa ahlihi wa salam never did.

An example

Rasulullah Sallallahu alaihi wa ahlihi wa salam sent a group of sahabi under the leadership of one companion.Through out their journey and stay this particular leader lead the prayers and always recited Surah Ikhlas Fajr, Zuhr, Asr, Maghrb, Isya.And there was NO instruction from The Prophet Sallallahu alaihi wa ahlihi wa salam .
When they returned this was conveyed to Rasulullah Sallallahu alaihi wa ahlihi wa salam who questioned him why he did this. The sahabah said that it was because the Surah was about the descrpition of the attribute of Allah ArRahman The Most Merciful and the sahabah loved the surah because of this.
Rasulullah Sallallahu alaihi wa ahlihi wa salam said "Tell him his love will lead him to Jannah". Rasulullah Sallallahu alaihi wa ahlihi wa salam never said that this was blameworthy innovation but encouraged such act of goodness for the love of Allah.
This companion knew what was bidah but he also knew this was an act of goodness.

Likewise it is recorded in Imam Bukhari's collection of hadith that one companion prayed behind the Prophet Sallallahu alaihi wa ahlihi wa salam.Each time the Prophet came out of rukuk this sahabi would say "Hamdan Toyyiban Mubarakan Fi".
After the prayer the Prophet Sallallahu alaihi wa ahlihi wa salam asked 3 times before the sahabi answered it was him who did the zikr.
Rasulullah said I only asked because I saw 30 angels competing to write down the reward of your zikr.
If it was blameworthy innovation / bidah, Rasulullah Sallallahu alaihi wa ahlihi wa salam would have reprimanded it.But instead he did not and told about the rewards recorded by the angels.

Another example

One companion was going to be crucified , He asked if he could pray2 rakaat sunnah before that. He said he did it short because he didn't want the enemy to think he was afraid, otherwise he would have made a longer prayer.
When this was revealed to the Prophet Sallallahu alaihi wa ahlihi wa salam, he said that the companion had done a good practise and encouraged such prayer. He did not say that the companion did bidah.

(Here Habib quoted a Quranic verse which I miss)


So we see that the sahabi who took the hadith and the understanding of the hadith from the mouth of the Prophet Sallallahu alaihi wa ahlihi wa salam always did goodness within the Prophetic revelation.

But we don't see them doing extra rakaat of zuhr prayer, or fasting in Ramadhan for 32 days. They knew what the hadith meant.

During the reign of Sayyidina Abu Bakr Radhi Allahu Anhu many hafiz died during the battle of Yammamah. Sayyidina Abu Bakr Radhi Allahu Anhu was afraid that the Quran would be lost from the Ummah.
He met Sayyidina Umar Radhi Allahu Anhu and said that there is a need to compile the Quran into a book. Sayyidina Umar responded that Rasulullah Sallallahu alaihi wa ahlihi wa salam did not do that. Sayyidina A Bakr said, it is as act of goodness,
Similar incident and respond with Sayyidina Uthman and Ubayy bin Kabb Radhi Allahu Anhum.
All the time Sayyidina A Bakr Radhi Allahu Anhu stressed that this was act of goodness.

Allah opened the heart of Sayyidina A Bakr Radhi Allahu Anhu to compile the Quran for future Ummah. It did not contradict the religion, but it facilitated people to worship Allah.

Same things with madrasah
There is no direct statement from Quran or Sunnah but it is an act of goodness

Masjid Nabawi originally was made of pebbles, palm leaves, bark of palm tree and the pulpit was from the palm tree.
We have changed the masjid but it is not blameworthy

Likewise the use of microphone during this lecture, Rasulullah Sallallahu alaihi wa ahlihi wa salam never used it. But it is an act of goodness that facilitate worship of Allah.

The beauty of this Deen is that there are many general goodness in the Light of Islam.

Example if a person decides to read Surah Ali Imran after Fajr everyday, someone hears about it and ask why he is doing it when Rasulullah Sallallahu alaihi wa ahlihi wa salam never did it.
Actually there is no basis to object because AlQuran is an intercessor for the person at Yaumul Qiyamah. It is good to read AlQuran. Maybe this person is not free to read AlQuran at other times.
The person who ask should facilitate act of goodness and active worship

Ayah Quran, Whatever Rasulullah ..........(missed this bit) take it, whatever he forbid from doing, avoid it

The verse said whatever he forbid, it did not say whatever RasulullahSallallahu alaihi wa ahlihi wa salam did not do

maybe sometimes what rasulullah Sallallahu alaihi wa ahlihi wa salam did not do is not a practise of his people for example eating lizard. When he Sallallahu alaihi wa ahlihi wa salam was asked why not,he said it is not a practise of my people.

Sayyidina Uthman bin Affan Radhi Allahu anhu when he was the Amirul mu'minin he introduced 2 azan for Jumaah prayers so that there is benefit for more time when he saw that there are many people who had to come for Friday Prayers.

Sayyidina Uthman Radhi Allahu Anhu also introduce Labbaika wa sa'daika instaed of labbaikAllah only.
What he did were act of goodness.

Any good action that is not done by Rasulullah Sallallahu alaihi wa ahlihi wa salam
if anyone say it is bid'ah
and he means good innovation, he is correct
if he means linguistically from the point of view of language, he is correct
if he says it is astray, for certain he himslef is mistaken and should go back to understanding the AlQuran and the Sunnah

Door to goodness is always open.
By the statement of AlQuran and Sunnah of Prophet Sallallahu alaihi wa ahlihi wa salam the person who thinks one is astray is wrong to make that statement.

Be reminded that a person who introduces good action will be rewarded for his action and will receive the reward of those who follow his good action without minimising the reward each individual receives.

For example Imam-imam of this Ummah were inspired by Allah Subhanahu wa Taala to gather zikr and doa, certain amount and at certan time and they noticed certain benefits and gather people to recite this doa and zikr,
These Imams were not contradicting the religion of Allah Subhanahu wa Taala.

For example
Sahih Bukhari, contains gatherings of saying.s of Prophet Muhammad Sallallahu alaihi wa ahlihi wa salam. It puts things into order.From them derived book of knowledge, book of fasting, book of Hajj etc
Now we say it is authentic, but what is it,
It is narration of Prophet Sallallahu alaihi wa ahlihi wa salam to facilitate the religion

If Prophet Muhammad Sallallahu alaihi wa ahlihi wa salam did an action only once, it is enough to instruct people to do that

For example Abdullah bin Abbas said he knew the congreagation prayers had finished when he hears zikr in a loud manner on his way to the masjid.

Another example one statement that Rasulullah Sallallahu alaihi wa ahlihi wa salam read qunut in fajr prayer till he die is enough evidence to practise qunut.

who does not know should hold back and not condemn
Condemn opens door to shaytan.
Hold back even if he feels strongly he is right
Don't go against the mannerism of the Prophet Sallallahu alaihi wa ahlihi wa salam. Condemn is not the right way to correct any practise

Generations after generation for 600 to 700 years from East to West Muslims had done that kind of practise. After generations and generations of people doing a particular practise, some people of present time try to stop such practise. Centuries after centuries from east to West people including learned scholars had good practises.
Only one scholar disagreed and thought people went astray and people nowadays start to take one scholar's opinion and behave in a certain manner.

For example for centuries from the 13th Hijra Muslims use to pray 20 rakaah of tarawih prayers, from masjid nabawi to masjidil haram and so on
Suddenly now people are saying we should go back to do 8 rakaah of tarawih.

Fuqaha/muhadittin/ulama of present days are misguided and hence people are also misguided.

Adorn one's self in Prophetic characteristic
Make doa that Allah show the truth as it is
and Allah shows falsehood as false.

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Above are the intention for studying from Imam Abdullah Al-Haddad (RahimuLlah) translated as: All praise to Allah, Lord of the Worlds. And salutations and greetings upon our master Muhammad and upon his family and companions. I intend to study and teach, take and give a reminder, take and give benefit, take and give advantage, to encourage the holding fast to the book of Allah and the way of his messenger, and calling to guidance and directing towards good hoping for the countenance of Allah and His pleasure, proximity and reward, transcendent is He. (Our thanks to www.deenport.com)

notes:


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- All the notes were just our own paraphrasing while listening to the dars. Any mistakes are ours and please forgive us for that.
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